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App::Rak zef:lizmat last updated on 2022-08-09

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NAME

App::Rak - 21st century grep / find / ack / ag / rg on steroids

SYNOPSIS

$ rak foo      # look for "foo" in current directory recursively

$ rak foo bar  # look for "foo" in directory "bar" recursively

$ rak '/ << foo >> /'    # look for "foo" as word in current directory

$ rak foo --files-only  # look for "foo", only produce filenames

$ rak foo --before=2 --after=2  # also produce 2 lines before and after

$ rak '{.contains("foo") && .contains("bar")}'  # lines with foo AND bar

DESCRIPTION

App::Rak provides a CLI called rak that allows you to look for a pattern in (a selection of files) from one or more directories recursively. It has been modelled after utilities such as grep, ack, ag and rg, with a little bit of find mixed in, and -n and -p parameters of many programming languages.

Note: this is still very much in alpha development phase. Comments, suggestions and bug reports are more than welcome!

POSITIONAL ARGUMENTS

pattern

The pattern to search for. This can either be a string, or a Raku regular expression (indicated by a string starting and ending with /), a Callable (indicated by a string starting with { and ending with }), or a a result of Whatever currying (indicated by a string starting with *.).

Can also be specified with the --pattern option, in which case all the positional arguments are considered to be a path specification.

If the pattern is a Callable, then the dynamic variable $*IO will contain the IO::Path object of the file being processed. Note that pattern Callables will be called in a thread unsafe manner.

path(s)

Optional. Either indicates the path of the directory (and its sub-directories), or the file that will be searched. By default, all directories that do not start with a period, will be recursed into (but this can be changed with the --dir option).

By default, all files will be searched in the directories. This can be changed with the --file option

ON CALLABLES AS PATTERN

The Raku Programming Language has a number of unique features that can be used with patterns that are so-called Callables. One of them is the use of so-called phasers (pieces of code that will be executed automatically when a certain condition has been met.

App::Rak currently supports the loop phasers:

These phasers will be called in a thread-safe manner.

$ rak '{ FIRST state $seen = 0; NEXT $seen++; LAST say "$seen files"; .contains("pattern")}'

Any other phasers that do not require special attention by App::Rak are also supported in any code specified.

CREATING YOUR OWN OPTIONS

App::Rak provides many options. If you are happy with a set of options for a certain workflow, You can use the --save option to save that set of options and than later access them with the given name:

$ rak --ignorecase --ignoremark --save=im
Saved option '--im' as: --ignorecase --ignoremark

# same as --ignorecase --ignoremark
$ rak foo --im

You can use the --list-custom-options to see what options you have saved before.

SUPPORTED OPTIONS

All options are optional. Any unexpected options, will cause an exception to be thrown with the unexpected options listed.

--after-context=N

Indicate the number of lines that should be shown after any line that matches. Defaults to 0. Will be overridden by a --context argument.

--backup[=extension]

Indicate whether backups should be made of files that are being modified. If specified without extension, the extension .bak will be used.

--before-context=N

Indicate the number of lines that should be shown before any line that matches. Defaults to 0. Will be overridden by a --context argument.

--blame-per-line

Flag. Only makes sense if the pattern is a Callable. If specified with a True value, indicates that each line from the selected files will be provided as Git::Blame::Line objects if git blame can be performed on the a selected file. If that is not possible, then the selected file will be ignored.

If information can be obtained, then the associated Git::Blame::Line object will be presented to the pattern Callable. If the Callable returns a true value, then the short representation of the git blame information will be shown. If the returned value is a string, then that string will be shown.

$ rak '{ .author eq "Scooby Doo" }' --blame-per-line

--break[=string]

Indicate whether there should be a visible division between matches of different files. Can also be specified as a string to be used as the divider. Defaults to True (using an empty line as a divider) if --human is (implicitly) set to True, else defaults to False.

--context=N

Indicate the number of lines that should be shown around any line that matches. Defaults to 0. Overrides any a --after-context or --before-context arguments.

--count-only

Flag. Indicate whether just the number of lines with matches should be calculated. When specified with a True value, will show a "N matches in M files" by default, and if the :files-with-matches option is also specified with a True value, will also list the file names with their respective counts.

--dryrun

Flag. Indicate to not actually make any changes to any content modification if specified with a True value. Only makes sense together with the --modify-files option.

--edit[=editor]

Indicate whether the patterns found should be fed into an editor for inspection and/or changes. Defaults to False. Optionally takes the name of the editor to be used.

--extensions=spec

Indicate the extensions of the filenames that should be inspected. By default, no limitation on filename extensions will be done.

Extensions can be specified as a comma-separated list, or one of the predefined groups, indicated by #name.

# inspect files with extensions used by Raku
$ rak foo --extensions=#raku

# inspect files with Markdown content
$ rak foo --extensions=md,markdown

# inspect files without extension
$ rak foo --extensions=

Predefined groups are #raku, #perl, #c, #c++, #yaml, <#ruby> #python, #markdown and #text.

--file-separator-null

Flag. Indicate to separate filenames by null bytes rather than newlines if the --files-with-matches option is specified with a True value.

--files-from=filename

Indicate the path of the file to read filenames from instead of the expansion of paths from any positional arguments. "-" can be specified to read filenames from STDIN.

--files-with-matches

Flag. If specified with a true value, will only produce the filenames of the files in which the pattern was found. Defaults to False.

--find

Flag. If specified with a true value, will not look at the contents of the selected paths, but instead consider the selected paths as lines in a virtual file.

Flag. Indicate whether symbolic links to directories should be followed. Defaults to False.

--group-matches

Flag. Indicate whether matches of a file should be grouped together by mentioning the filename only once (instead of on every line). Defaults to True if --human is (implicitly) set to True, else defaults to False.

--highlight

Flag. Indicate whether the pattern should be highlighted in the line in which it was found. Defaults to True if --human is (implicitly) set to True, else defaults to False.

--help [area-of-interest]

Show argument documentation, possibly extended by giving the area of interest, which are:

--highlight--after[=string]

Indicate the string that should be used at the end of the pattern found in a line. Only makes sense if --highlight is (implicitly) set to True. Defaults to the empty string if --only-matching is specified with a True value, or to the terminal code to end bold otherwise.

--highlight--before[=string]

Indicate the string that should be used at the end of the pattern found in a line. Only makes sense if --highlight is (implicitly) set to True. Defaults to a space if --only-matching is specified with a True value, or to the terminal code to start bold otherwise.

--human

Flag. Indicate that search results should be presented in a human readable manner. This means: filenames shown on a separate line, line numbers shown, and highlighting performed. Defaults to True if STDOUT is a TTY (aka, someone is actually watching the search results), otherwise defaults to False.

--json-per-file

Flag. Only makes sense if the pattern is a Callable. If specified with a True value, indicates that each selected file will be interpreted as JSON, and if valid, will then be given to the pattern for introspection. If the Callable returns a true value, the filename will be shown. If the returned value is a string, that string will also be mentioned. For example:

$ rak '{ $_ with .<auth> }' --json-per-file

--json-per-line

Flag. Only makes sense if the pattern is a Callable. If specified with a True value, indicates that each line from the selected files will be interpreted as JSON, and if valid, will then be given to the pattern for introspection. If the Callable returns a true value, the filename and line number will be shown. If the returned value is a string, that string will also be mentioned. For example:

$ rak '{ $_ with .<auth> }' --json-per-line

--known-extensions

Flag. Indicate that only files with known extensions (occuring in any of the #groups) should be searched. Defaults to True if a human is watching.

--list-custom-options

$ rak --list-custom-options
fs: --'follow-symlinks'
im: --ignorecase --ignoremark

Flag. If specified with a true value and as the only option, will list all additional options previously saved with --save.

--list-expanded-options

$ rak --im --list-expanded-options
--ignorecase --ignoremark

Flag. If specified with a true value, will show all actual options being activated after having been recursively expanded, and then exit. Intended as a debugging aid if you have many custom options defined.

--list-known-extensions

$ rak --list-known-extensions
       #c: c h hdl
     #c++: cpp cxx hpp hxx
  #config: ini
#markdown: md markdown
    #perl: (none) pl pm t
  #python: py
    #raku: (none) raku rakumod rakutest rakudoc nqp t pm6 pl6 pod6 t6
    #ruby: rb
    #text: (none) txt
    #yaml: yaml yml

Flag. If specified with a true value, will show all known extension groups and the extensions they represent. Intended as an informational aid.

--modify-files

Flag. Only makes sense if the specified pattern is a Callable. Indicates whether the output of the pattern should be applied to the file in which it was found. Defaults to False.

The Callable will be called for each line, giving the line (including its line ending). It is then up to the Callable to return:

False

Remove this line from the file. NOTE: this means the exact False value.

True

Keep this line unchanged the file. NOTE: this means the exact True value.

Empty

Keep this line unchanged the file. NOTE: this means the exact Empty value. This is typically returned as the result of a failed condition. For example, only change the string "foo" into "bar" if the line starts with "#":

$ rak '{ .subst("foo","bar") if .starts-with("#") }' --modify-files

any other value

Inserts this value in the file instead of the given line. The value can either be a string, or a list of strings.

--module=foo

Indicate the Raku module that should be loaded. Only makes sense if the pattern is executable code.

--only-matching

Flag. Indicate whether only the matched pattern should be produced, rather than the line in which the pattern was found. Defaults to False.

--output-file=filename

Indicate the path of the file in which the result of the search should be placed. Defaults to STDOUT.

--pager

Indicate the name (and arguments) of a pager program to be used to page through the generated output. Defaults to the RAK_PAGER environment variable. If that isn't specified either, then no pager program will be run.

$ RAK_PAGER='more -r' rak foo

$ rak foo --pager='less -r'

--paragraph-context

Flag. Indicate all lines that are part of the same paragraph around any line that matches. Defaults to False.

--passthru

Flag. Indicate whether all lines from source should be shown, even if they do not match the pattern. Highlighting will still be performed, if so (implicitely) specified.

# Watch a log file, and highlight a certain IP address.
$ tail -f ~/access.log | rak --passthru 123.45.67.89

--paths-from=filename

Indicate the path of the file to read path specifications from instead of from any positional arguments. "-" can be specified to read path specifications from STDIN.

--pattern=foo

Alternative way to specify the pattern to search for. If (implicitly) specified, will assume the first positional parameter specified is actually a path specification, rather than a pattern. This allows the pattern to be searched for to be saved with --save.

--quietly

Flag. Only makes sense if the pattern is a Callable. If specified with a true value, will catch all warnings that are emitted when executing the pattern's Callable. Defaults to False.

--repository=dir

Indicate the directory that should be searched for Raku module loading. Only makes sense if the pattern is executable code.

Note that you can create a familiar shortcut for the most common arguments of the --repository option:

$ rak --repository=. --save=I.
Saved option '--I.' as: --repository='.'

$ rak --repository=lib --save=Ilib
Saved option '--Ilib' as: --repository=lib

--save=shortcut-name

Save all options with the given name in the configuration file (~/.rak-config.json), and exit with a message that these options have been saved with the given name.

This feature can used to both create shortcuts for specific (long) options, or just as a convenient way to combine often used options.

$ rak --ignorecase --ignoremark --save=im
Saved option '--im' as: --ignorecase --ignoremark

# same as --ignorecase --ignoremark
$ rak foo --im

$ rak --follow-symlinks --save=fs
Saved option '--fs' as: --follow-symlinks

$ rak --break='[---]' --save=B
Saved option '--B' as: --break='[---]'

$ rak --pattern=! --save=P
Saved option '--P' as: --pattern='!'

$ rak --save=foo
Removed configuration for 'foo'

Any options can be accessed as if it is a standard option. Please note that no validity checking on the options is being performed at the moment of saving, as validity may depend on other options having been specified.

One option can be marked as requiring a value to be specified (with "!") or have a default value (with "[default-value]").

To remove a saved set of options, use --save as the only option.

--show-blame

Flag. Indicate whether to show git blame information for matching lines if possible, instead of just the line. Defaults to False.

--show-filename

Flag. Indicate whether filenames should be shown. Defaults to True if --human is (implicitly) set to True, else defaults to False.

--show-line-number

Flag. Indicate whether line numbers should be shown. Defaults to True if --human is (implicitly) set to True and <-h> is not set to True, else defaults to False.

--silently[=out,err]

Flag and option. Only applicable if the pattern is a Callable. Indicates whether any output from the Callable pattern should be caught. Defaults to False. If specified as a flag, will catch both STDOUT as well as STDERR output from the pattern's execution. When specified as an option, will accept:

--smartcase

Flag. An intelligent version of --ignorecase. If the pattern does not contain any uppercase characters, it will act as if --ignorecase was specified. Otherwise it is ignored.

--summary-if-larger-than=N

Indicate the maximum size a line may have before it will be summarized. Defaults to 160 if STDOUT is a TTY (aka, someone is actually watching the search results), otherwise defaults to Inf effectively (indicating no summarization will ever occur).

Only makes sense if the pattern is a string. With words specified, will look for pattern as a word in a line, with starts-with will look for the pattern at the beginning of a line, with ends-with will look for the pattern at the end of a line, with contains will look for the pattern at any position in a line.

--trim

Flag. Indicate whether lines that have the pattern, should have any whitespace at the start and/or end of the line removed. Defaults to True if no context for lines was specified, else defaults to False.

--unique

Flag. If specified with a true value, will only produce unique lines of output. Default is False.

--version

Flag. If the only argument, shows the name and version of the script, and the system it is running on.

--vimgrep

Flag. If specified with a true value, will output search results in the format "filename:linenumber:column:line". This allows integration with the :grep action in vim-like editors.

IN APPLICATION USAGE

You can also load the App::Rak module as a module in your own application. It will then export a rak subroutine with the same arguments as the rak command line interface.

This is still a bit experimental.

Currently calling this subroutine will return Nil. That may change in the future.

use App::Rak;

rak 'foo';  # look for "foo" in all files with known extensions from "."

AUTHOR

Elizabeth Mattijsen [email protected]

Source can be located at: https://github.com/lizmat/App-Rak . Comments and Pull Requests are welcome.

If you like this module, or what I’m doing more generally, committing to a small sponsorship would mean a great deal to me!

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2022 Elizabeth Mattijsen

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the Artistic License 2.0.