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Kind::Subset::Parametric zef:Kaiepi last updated on 2022-12-04

=begin pod

[![Build Status](](

=head1 NAME

Kind::Subset::Parametric - Support for generic subsets


=begin code :lang<raku>
use Kind::Subset::Parametric;

# Arrays don't type their elements by default:
my @untyped = 1, 2, 3;
say @untyped.^name; # OUTPUT: Array

# You can make it so they do by parameterizing Array:
my Int:D @typed = 1, 2, 3;
say @typed.^name; # OUTPUT: Array[Int:D]

# But you can't typecheck untyped arrays using these parameterizations:
say @typed ~~ Array[Int:D];   # OUTPUT: True
say @untyped ~~ Array[Int:D]; # OUTPUT: False

# So let's make our own array type that handles this using a parametric subset:
subset TypedArray of Array will parameterize -> ::T {
    proto sub check(Array) {*}
    multi sub check(Array[T] --> True) { }
    multi sub check(Array:U --> False) { }
    multi sub check(Array:D $topic) { so $topic.all ~~ T }
} where { !!! };

# Now they can both be typechecked:
given TypedArray[Int:D] -> \IntArray {
    say @typed ~~ IntArray;        # OUTPUT: True
    say @untyped ~~ IntArray;      # OUTPUT: True
    say <foo bar baz> ~~ IntArray; # OUTPUT: False
=end code


C<Kind::Subset::Parametric> enhances subsets with support for parameterization.
This allows you to write subsets with generic C<where> clauses.

C<Kind::Subset::Parametric> is documented. You can refer to the documentation
for its trait and C<MetamodelX::ParametricSubset> at any time using C<WHY>.

=head1 TRAITS

=head2 will parameterize

=for code :lang<raku>
multi sub trait_mod:<will>(Mu \T where Subset, &body_block, :parameterize($)!)

This trait mixes the C<MetamodelX::ParametricSubset> metarole into the
HOW of the type it is applied to, which may only be a subset of some sort.
Afterwards, the subset will be instantiated with its C<&body_block>, which is
what makes it possible to parameterize the subset.

The main metamethod of interest this metarole provides is C<parameterize>,
which accepts arbitrary type argumentss. This is created using a name
(generated similarly to how the name of a parametric role is generated), the
refinee of the parametric subset (the value of C<of>), and the return value of
the body block when invoked with the arguments as its refinement (the value of

For example, given an identity type:

=for code :lang<raku>
subset Identity will parameterize { $_ } where { !!! };

C<Identity[Any]> may be written to produce:

=for code :lang<raku>
subset ::('Identity[Any]') where Any;

Note the stubbed C<where> clause. Parametric subsets can still be given a
refinement when this trait is applied, which handles typechecking against the
subset when it has not been parameterized. If it's not desirable for a
parametric subset to typecheck without being parameterized, the C<!!!> stub
will throw. Historically, C<...> was used, but failures don't necessarily sink
when the typechecker's nqp is involved.

The body block may be introspected with the C<body_block> metamethod, which
returns the body block it was parameterized with given a subset type.
C<set_body_block> must be called after being instantiated either by mixin on a
HOW or by C«&trait_mod:<does>» in order to replace this.

Refer to C<t/02-will.t> for more examples of how to use this trait.

=head1 AUTHOR

Ben Davies (Kaiepi)


Copyright 2022 Ben Davies

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the Artistic License 2.0.

=end pod