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Net::SMTP::Client::Async cpan:HANENKAMP last updated on 2020-03-03

Net-SMTP-Client-Async-0.0.1/

NAME

Net::SMTP::Client::Async - asynchronous communication client for SMTP

SYNOPSIS

use Net::SMTP::Client::Async;

with await Net::SMTP::Client::Async.connect(:host<smtp.gmail.com>, :port(465), :secure) {
    await .hello;

    my $message = q:to/END_OF_MESSAGE/;
    To: Sterling <[email protected]>
    From: Sterling <[email protected]>
    Subject: Hello World

    Goodbye.
    END_OF_MESSAGE

    await .send-message(
        from => "[email protected]",
        to   => [ "[email protected]" ],
        :$message,
    );

    .quit;

    CATCH {
        when X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async {
            note "Unable to send email message: $_";
            .quit
        }
    }
}

DESCRIPTION

This is an SMTP client library written using asynchronous methods. This class provides two interfaces:

These interfaces are completely interchangeable and can be interleaved.

For example, consider this program which will connect to an ESMTP server on port 587, upgrade a plaintext connection to TLS and then send a message:

use Net::SMTP::Client::Async;

my $smtp = Net::SMTP::Client::Async.connect(
    :host<smtp.gmail.com>, :port(587),
);

await $smtp.hello;
await $smtp.start-tls(:host<smtp.gmail.com>);

# After TLS, you must say hello again.
await $smtp.hello;

await $smtp.send-message(
    from    => "[email protected]",
    to      => [ "[email protected]" ],
    message => q:to/END_OF_MESSAGE/,
        To: Sterling <[email protected]>
        From: Sterling <[email protected]>
        Subject: Hello World

        Goodbye.
        END_OF_MESSAGE
);

$smtp.quit;

CATCH {
    when X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async {
        note "Unable to send email message: $_";
        .quit
    }
}

Now consider a similar program, but written solely using the low-level interface API:

use Net::SMTP::Client::Async;

my $smtp = Net::SMTP::Client::Async.connect(
    :host<smtp.gmail.com>, :port(587),
);

my $ehlo = await $smtp.EHLO('localhost.localdomain');

die "unable to perform SMTP handshake" if $ehlo.is-error;

$smtp.populate-keywords($ehlo.text);

die "STARTTLS is not supported by SMTP server" unless $smtp.keywords<STARTTLS>;

my $start-tls = await $smtp.STARTTLS;
die "unable to perform upgrade to secure SMTP connection" if $start-tls.is-error;

$smtp.clear-keywords;

my $upgrade = try {
    await $smtp.upgrade-client(:host<smtp.gmail.com>);

    CATCH {
        default {
            die "unable to negotiate SSL upgrade with client";
        }
    }
}

my $ehlo-again = await $smtp.EHLO('localhost.localdomain');
die "unable to perform secure SMTP handshake" if $ehlo-again.is-error;

$smtp.populate-keywords($ehlo-again.text);

my $mail = await $smtp.MAIL('[email protected]');
die "unable to send mail FROM [email protected]" if $mail.is-error;

my $rcpt = await $smtp.RCPT('[email protected]');
die "unable to send mail TO [email protected]" if $rcpt.is-error;

my $data = await $smtp.DATA;
die "unable to initiate message send" if $data.is-error;

# perform dot-stuffing of the message
my $message = $smtp.escape-message(q:to/END_OF_MESSAGE/);
    To: Sterling <[email protected]>
    From: Sterling <[email protected]>
    Subject: Hello World

    Goodbye.
    END_OF_MESSAGE

my $message-response = await $smtp.send-raw-message($message);

$smtp.QUIT;
$smtp.disconnect;

These programs are not equivalent as the high-level methods perform additional error checking and such that is not being deon in the second program. However, the second program illustrates what is possible.

Aside from the change in interface, the greatest difference between the high-level and low-level APIs is that the high-level API provides errors through X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async exceptions. The low-level API, on the other hand does no error checking and leaves it to the developer to do the error checking. You can do that by looking at the returned Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response and checking the details of that response, which includes the response code, the full text of the response (which may span multiple lines for some commands, but has the code parts at the start of every line removed), and some convenience methods for detecting success and errors.

The only exception to the no error checking rule is the [.upgrade-client](#method upgrade-client) method. This is due to the fact that this is a call-out to the method with the same name in IO::Socket::Async::SSL, which passes SSL exception from failed SSL negotiation through to the caller.

Another difference between the high-level and low-level interfaces is that the high-level interface guarantees thread safety. The high-level interface works to keep the object and connection consistent and prevents the state from being corrupted across threads. The low-level interface provides fewer guarantees.

For example, consider the situation where you use [.STARTTLS](#method STARTTLS) to request SSL negotiation and receive a favorable 250 code response. However, you then call another method other than .upgrade-client. If you do that, your client will be in the wrong state compared to the server. On the other hand, this also means you can use features of SMTP that the high-level interface does not implement or permit, which is the primary purpose of the low-level interface.

If you have an SMTP server where you need to do something that takes you off the beaten path of sending a fairly simple email message, you should be able to do that with this library.

CONCURRENCY

This class is intended to be thread safe. However, it is also fairly immature, so there might be some bugs with that.

Internally, any command sent to the SMTP socket is queued up using a Channel. This means all commands will be executed in the order they are received. Commands may be sent before the response has been received if you do not make sure to await on the previous method call before calling another, which could result in unrecoverable errors. For this reason, it is recommended that you perform an await prior to calling another method.

Internal state within the object is protected by a Lock using a monitor pattern. The state of the object returned by the accessors will never be partially constructed. However, it is still possible to use the returned state in an unsafe way if a method, which changes state is called. This includes the following methods:

Other methods may also change state. Those changes are clearly documented in each method's documentation.

Additional precautions should be taken around the calls of these methods or any state-changing methods to make sure that the operation is complete before accessing the attributes of the method. Otherwise, you will end up with thread safety problems.

METHODS

method socket

has $.socket

This will be either a IO::Socket::Async or a IO::Socket::Async::SSL object which represents the underlying connection to the SMTP server. As long as the object is defined, this will also be defined. After [.quit](#method quit) or [.disconnect](#method disconnect) has been called, though, the object will be in a disconnected state.

method secure

has Bool $.secure = False

This flag will be set to False if the connection to the SMTP server is a plain text connection or to True if the connection is currently secure. It will be set to True if the socket is upgraded to use SSL.

method keywords

has %.keywords

This hash will be populated after the client has successfully performed an ESMTP handshake during [.hello](#method hello) or by calling [.populate-keywords](#method populate-keywords). If the SMTP object is used to initiate a plaintext connection and then upgraded using [.start-tls](#method start-tls) or clared using [.clear-keywords](#method clear-keywords), these will be cleared again. This is because the ESMTP handshake must be performed again after upgrading the connection to a secure connection as the server may provide different keywords for secure connections than it provides for unsecure connections.

The keywords are typically the name of supported extended commands. The value of the keywords is set to True if no parameters are provided. If parameters are provided, then the value of that keyword will be set to the list of those parameters:

my $smtp = Net::SMTP::Client::Async.new;
await $smtp.hello;
say "Supports STARTTLS" if $smtp.keywords<STARTTLS>;
say "Supports these SASL plugins: $smtp.keywords<AUTH>.join(', ')" if $smtp.keywords<AUTH>;

method connect

multi method connect(IO::Socket::Async $socket --> Promise:D)
multi method connect(IO::Socket::Async::SSL $socket --> Promise:D)
multi method connect(Str :$host, UInt :$port, Bool :$secure --> Promise:D)

These are the constructors for Net::SMTP::Client::Async. These establish a connection to the SMTP server or allow the object to adopt a previously established connection to an SMTP server. If an IO::Socket::Async object is given, the [.secure](#method secure) flag will be False. If an IO::Socket::Async::SSL object is given, the .secure flag will be True.

If called with no arguments or called with some combination of $host, $port, and $secure, the constructor will make the connection for you. The default $host is "localhost". The default $port is 25 if $secure is not set or 465 if $secure is set. The default value for $secure is False.

Each of these methods return a Promise, which will be fulfilled once the connection has been established and the object constructed. The promise is kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async object.

That constructed object will not have performed the initial SMTP handshake. Therefore, you will need to immediately call [.hello](#method hello) or [.EHLO](#method EHLO) or [.HELO](#method HELO) to complete the connection process.

method hello

method hello(Str:D $domain = "localhost.localdomain" --> Promise:D)

On success, this method updates the state of this object by either setting or clearing the keywords.

This method will attempt to perform an ESMTP handshake (i.e., EHLO) with the SMTP server. If that handshake succeeds, it will parse the response and place all the announced keywords and paramters into the [.keywords attribute](#method keywords).

If the ESMTP handshake fails, this method will attempt to fallback on SMTP handshake (i.e., HELO). In this case, .keywords will remain empty.

The method returns a Promise. On failure, the Promise will be broken with a [X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Handshake](X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async#class X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Handshake) exception. On success, the Promise is kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response containing a successful response.

method start-tls

method start-tls(--> Promise:D)

On success, this method updates the state of this object by clearing the keywords and setting the secure flag to True.

This method returns a Promise, which will be kept if the operation completes successfully with the Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response object showing the successful response from the server. If the operation fails to secure the connection by first sending the STARTTLS command and then performing a successful SSL negotiation, it will be broken with an exception.

If an ESMTP handshake has not completed or the ESMTP server does not list STARTTLS support, the returned Promise will be broken with an [X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Support](X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async#class X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Support) exception.

If the connection is already secure or if the STARTTLS command results in an error response, the returned Promise will be broken with an [X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Secure](x::SMTP::Client::Async#class X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Secure) exception.

If the SSL handshake fails, the returned Promise will be broken with an exception from OpenSSL.

If the returned Promise is broken fro any resonse, the connection to the SMTP server will also be disconnected and the Net::SMTP::Client::Async object is now no longer in a usable state and should be discarded.

method send-message

method send-message(
    Str:D :$from!,
    Str:D :@to!,
    Str:D :$message!,
    --> Promise:D
)

This method performs the work required for sending an SMTP message. This means sending the MAIL command with the given $from address, teh RCPT command for each given @to address, the DATA command to start sending data, and then the $message itself followed by a line containing only a ".". The $message will have "dot stuffing" performed on it as well.

The method returns a Promise which will be kept with the final successful Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response received after transmitting the message. If any step of the process fails, the returned Promise will be broken with the [X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Send](X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async#class X::Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Send) exception.

method quit

method quit(--> Promise:D)

After this method is called, no other method should be called on this object. The object should now be discarded and cannot be reused.

This sends a QUIT command to the SMTP serer and disconnects the socket.

The returned Promise will be kept with the result of the Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Result returned by the server after sending teh QUIT command.

method send-command

method send-command(Str:D $command, Str $argument? --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send any arbitrary command to the SMTP server with the given argument. Nothing special is done to escape or prepare the values sent other than having a space inserted between $command and $argument (assuming $argument is specified at all).

The returned Promise will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response object containing the response from the server for that command. This class will not break the returned Promies, so if it is broken, something unexpected has gone wrong.

method EHLO

method EHLO(Str:D $domain --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the EHLO command and return a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method populate-keywords

multi method populate-keywords(Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response:D $text)
multi method populate-keywords(Str:D $text)

This is a low-level method.

This will set the [.keywords](#method keywords) attribute to the keywords found in the message. If passed as a string, it should be text the format returned by Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response by the .text method.

method clear-keywords

method clear-keywords()

This is a low-level method.

This will clear the [.keywords](#method keywords) attribute. This should be called when the capabilities of the SMTP server were previously known, but now are not. (I.e., after STARTTLS).

method HELO

method HELO(Str:D $domain --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the HELO command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method MAIL

method MAIL(Str:D $from --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the MAIL command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

The $from argument will have the "FROM:" prefix added to it automatically before being sent to the SMTP server.

method RCPT

method RCPT(Str:D $to --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the RCPT command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

The $to argument will have the "TO:" prefix added to it automatically before being sent to the SMTP server.

method DATA

method DATA(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the DATA command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method escape-message

method escape-message(Str:D $message --> Str:D)

This is a low-level method.

You only need this if you are using [.send-raw-message](#method send-raw-message). This performs "dot stuffing" on the given string. That is, SMTP uses a line containing a single period to mark the end of a message. In order to make sure that users never see this, the SMTP server will ignore the first period that starts any line that contains any text other than a single period. Therefore, dot stuffing is the process of escaping any line that starts with a period by adding an additional period to the start of those lines.

The string returned byt this method will have an extra period added to any line that starts with a period.

method send-raw-message

method send-raw-message(Str:D $raw-message --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send message content to the SMTP server followed by a ".". This will not perform any "dot stuffing" on the message. See [.escape-message](#method escape-message).

This will return a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method RSET

method RSET(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the RSET command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method SEND

method SEND(Str:D $from --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the SEND command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method SOML

method SOML(Str:D $from --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the SOML command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method SAML

method SAML(Str:D $from --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the SAML command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method VRFY

method VRFY(Str:D $string --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the VRFY command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method EXPN

method EXPN(Str:D $string --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the EXPN command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method HELP

method HELP(Str:D $string? --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the HELP command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method NOOP

method NOOP(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the NOOP command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method QUIT

method QUIT(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the QUIT command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method disconnect

method disconnect(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

Normally, to close your connection, you should issue a call to the [.quit](#method quit) method. This closes the connection to the SMTP server without issuing a QUIT command. It also makes sure any internally queued actions stop working.

After this method has been called, the object is in an unusable state and should be discarded.

method TURN

method TURN(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the TURN command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method STARTTLS

method STARTTLS(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the STARTTLS command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method upgrade-client

method upgrade-client(*%passthru --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This upgrades the current socket from IO::Socket::Async to IO::Socket::Async::SSL. All arguments are passed through to the .upgrade-client method of IO::Socket::Async::SSL.

method ETRN

method ETRN(Str:D $node-name --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the ETRN command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method AUTH

method AUTH(Str:D $mechanism --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will send the AUTH command and returns a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response.

method send-raw

method send-raw(Str:D $string --> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This queues a data send of the given string. The string is passed through, as is. The method returns a Promise which will be kept with a True, but makes no guarantee that the send has actually occurred. If you need that, then you need to work directly with the [.socket](#method socket) itself.

method receive-raw

method receive-raw(--> Promise:D)

This is a low-level method.

This will return a Promise that will be kept with a Net::SMTP::Client::Async::Response containing the next response sent by the SMTP server.